[Denton, Frank J, 1869-1963. Between 7 and 9 people were killed in the earthquake, and 5 others sustained injuries that required hospitalisation. Its epicenter was near Cañete, Chile. The violent shake was felt as far away as Canterbury. Daytime earthquakes were more deadly than nighttime earthquakes, and mortality rates … Daytime earthquakes were more deadly than nighttime earthquakes, and mortality rates … 23 January: The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake causes extensive damage but few deaths. [1] This earthquake was associated with the largest observed movement on a strike-slip fault, maximum 18 metres (59 ft). Wairarapa (magnitude 8.2): This is the most powerful recorded earthquake in New Zealand and resulted from movement at least 140 kilometres along the Wairarapa Fault, on the eastern edge of the Rimutaka Range. There were five deaths. Archived from the original on 16 July 2014. The Wairarapa Fault is an active seismic fault in the southern part of the North Island of New Zealand. The latter was most dramatic at Muka Muka, on the western side of Palliser Bay, where the ground was raised by 2.7m. The June quake was preceded by a magnitude 5.9 ML tremor that struck the region at a slightly deeper 8.9 km (5.5 mi). The quake, estimated at magnitude 8.2, raises parts of the Wellington harbour foreshore by as much as 6 metres. 7–9 deaths. Ref #: 1/2-003924-G Collection of negatives, prints and albums PAColl-3043], Landslip caused by earthquake near Wellington, New Zealand. It … Intensity of the earthquake. 1.1 billion $ damage MM VIII in the Newcastle area. Despite the violence of the 1855 earthquake (with an estimated strength of 8.0-8.2 on the Richter scale), there were few fatalities. Magnitude: 7.5 Death Toll: N/A Shaking continued for two minutes in Wellington and caused massive widespread damage. To the west of the Tararua Ranges are the Manawatu coastal plains. The estimated magnitude of about 8.2 is unusually large for an earthquake associated with movement on a mainly strike-slip fault, and the coseismic offset would have been the largest known for such an event. Story: Historic earthquakes — Te Ara "In Māori tradition Rūaumoko, god of earthquakes, caused rumblings and shaking as he walked about, and European arrivals soon experienced the frightening power of the land they hoped to settle. Deaths occurred during aftershock. The 1934 Pahiatua earthquake struck at 11:46 pm on 5 March, causing severe damage in much of the lower North Island. The Alpine Fault is a geological fault that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island and forms the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. [7] Reports identify at least another four people (possibly as many as eight) as having died in the surrounding countryside during the earthquake. For many of them, it would have had a 360 degree impact; concern for the safety of family and friends; damage to homes and possessions; and disruption to shops and businesses affecting both livelihoods, and access to essential goods and services. This information can then be used to quantify the seismic hazard of an area. Today, Wellington's Basin Reserve sports ground sits on land lifted by this earthquake; the area had previously been part of a waterway that led into the harbour. It forms part of the North Island Fault System, which accommodates the transfer of displacement along the oblique convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate. This earthquake was the second major earthquake that Wellington settlers had experienced. Magnitude: 7.5 Death Toll: N/A Shaking continued for two minutes in Wellington and caused massive widespread damage. Intensity of the earthquake. The first shoreline inland from the present day coast is where the shoreline was in 1855, before the area was uplifted by the Wairarapa earthquake. Economy Edit. 7–9 deaths The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake occurred on 23 January at about 9 p.m., affecting much of the Cook Strait area of New Zealand , including Marlborough in the South Island and Wellington and Wairarapa in the North Island . Originally reported as magnitude 6.6 on the Richter Scale, the earthquake was later downgraded to a magnitude of 6.2. Apr 19, 1902. The documents examined include contemporary diaries, letters and journals, newspaper reports and articles, archives, memoranda and reports of the Wellington Provincial Government as well as later reminiscences, extracts from … Casualties. It remained the single largest earthquake to strike Hawke's Bay until 1931, where a magnitude 7.8 quake leveled much of Napier and Hastings and killed 256 people. The 1848 Marlborough earthquake was a 7.5 earthquake that occurred at 1:40 a.m. on 16 October 1848 and whose epicenter was in the Marlborough region of the South Island of New Zealand. "Historic earthquakes – The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake". The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake occurred on 23 January at about 9 p.m., affecting much of the Cook Strait area of New Zealand, including Marlborough in the South Island and Wellington and Wairarapa in the North Island. The Marlborough Fault System is a set of four large dextral strike-slip faults and other related structures in the northern part of South Island, New Zealand, which transfer displacement between the mainly transform plate boundary of the Alpine fault and the mainly destructive boundary of the Kermadec Trench, and together form the boundary between the Australian and Pacific Plates. In the South Island most of the relative displacement between these plates is taken up along a single dextral (right lateral) strike-slip fault with a major reverse component, the Alpine Fault. The region had already experienced several large earthquakes, the very large 1855 Wairarapa Earthquake, and the 1934 Pahiatua earthquake in the Northern Wairarapa.. Growth slowed from the 1930s. ↑ "GeoNet – Quakes". Akl 23 Jun 1891 5.5- 6.0 Waikato Heads earthquake caused MM5-6 shaking in Auckland Cant 16/11/1901 6.8 1 It caused a devastating tsunami which led to several thousand fatalities. It is a dextral (right-lateral) strike-slip fault with variable amounts of vertical movement causing uplift to the northwest, as expressed by a series of ranges. The slip is still visible today along the Hutt Road. Surprisingly few people were injured. At 9:11pm, on 23 January 1855, the southern part of the North Island was struck by a magnitude 8.2 earthquake, the most powerful ever recorded in New Zealand. Significant uplift also occurred in Wellington City, most … The raised platforms at Turakirae head mark old shorelines (visible as pale bands). In the Wairarapa, several Māori (their reported number varies from two to six), were killed when a wharecollapsed. It has been suggested that the surface rupture formed by this event helped influence Charles Lyell to link earthquakes with rapid movement on faults. The sparsely settled region of the Southern Alps shook for four minutes. Archived from the original on 16 July 2014. [10] New Zealand's National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research created an animated tsunami simulation model based on the 1855 Wairarapa event, which was screened on the television tele-drama "Aftershock". The 1855 Wairarapa Earthquake Symposium — Proceedings Volume Published by Greater Wellington Regional Council Greater Wellington Publication Number: GW/RINV-T-05/205 ISBN: 0-909016-87-9 September 2005 . Numerous landslides occurred, and up to 6 m of uplift. Contempo­rary accounts put these at 10, compared to 17 in the 1929 Murchison earthquake and 256 in the 1931 Napier earthquake. He is pardoned the following year. Read more. It killed between five and nine people in Wellington, Manawatū and Wairarapa and radically altered the landscape of the Wellington region. 23 January: The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake causes extensive damage but few deaths. [5] Geomorphological evidence, particularly the uplifted beach ridges observed at Turakirae Head, appears to record three previous coseismic uplifts of the Rimutaka Range caused by earthquakes similar in magnitude to the 1855 event, with a recurrence interval of about 2200 years. The earthquake measured 8.2 on the Richter scale and was centred in the south-west Wairarapa along the Wairarapa Fault, about 25 kilometres from Wellington. In 1855 a magnitude 8.2 earthquake – the most powerful ever recorded in New Zealand – rocked the southern part of the North Island. On 23 January 1855 the region was hit by the strongest earthquake recorded in New Zealand, which reached Magnitude 8.1 on the Richter Scale. Story: Historic earthquakes — Te Ara "In Māori tradition Rūaumoko, god of earthquakes, caused rumblings and shaking as he walked about, and European arrivals soon experienced the frightening power of the land they hoped to settle. At 11.16 pm a small and sharp but brief earthquake of magnitude 7.2 Ms (Mw 6.9-7.2) shook a wide area in … 1855 The first bridge over the Mississippi River opens in what is now Minneapolis, a … The 1848 Marlborough earthquake was caused by rupture of the whole of the eastern section of the Awatere Fault. The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake and tsunami leaves nine dead in New Zealand. The earthquake originated on the Wairarapa Fault and caused extensive faulting and uplift in epicentral areas. Retrieved 22 November 2016. ", National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Charles Lyell and the 1855 Wairarapa earthquake in New Zealand: Recognition of fault rupture accompanying an earthquake, Terminations of large strike-slip faults: an alternative model from New Zealand, Hope Fault, Jordan Thrust, and uplift of the Seaward Kaikoura Range, New Zealand, "World's largest coseismic strike-slip offset: The 1855 rupture of the Wairarapa Fault, New Zealand, and implications for displacement/length scaling of continental earthquakes", "Massive earthquake hits southern North Island", "Historic earthquakes – The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake", Canterbury Earthquake Response and Recovery Act 2010, Lyttelton Road Tunnel Administration Building, Canterbury Earthquake Commemoration Day Act 2011. At 11.16 pm a small … Retrieved 26 December 2011. Most of the fault system consists of dextral strike-slip faults, although towards its northeastern end the trend swings to more S-N trend and the faults become mainly oblique normal in sense as the zone intersects with the Taupo rift zone. The earthquake of January 23 1855 is New Zealand's largest earthquake since organised European settlement. The Wairau Fault is an active dextral strike-slip fault in the northeastern part of South Island, New Zealand. [4] The earthquake occurred on the Wairarapa Fault which is part of the NIFS. Intensity of the earthquake. Four people were killed and the landscape of the Wellington region was changed significantly. Minor damage was recorded in places as far away as Lyttelton and Christchurch. Damage to at least 95 unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings resulted in 272 deaths, and damage to five reinforced concrete (RC) buildings resulted in 145 deaths. Numerous landslides were reported along the slopes of the Rimutaka Range. The Southern Alps have been uplifted on the fault over the last 12 million years in a series of earthquakes. The maximum perceived intensity was IX (Violent) on the Mercalli intensity scale' possibly reaching X (Extreme). The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake and tsunami leaves nine dead in New Zealand. It forms part of the North Island Fault System, which accommodates the transfer of displacement along the oblique convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate. Orpheus shipwreck Happened in 1863 - 189 people died 1886. Damage to at least 95 unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings resulted in 272 deaths, and damage to five reinforced concrete (RC) buildings resulted in 145 deaths. A total of 1112 aftershocks were recorded, ranging between magnitudes 2.0 and 4.9 on the Richter Scale. The 1976 Tangshan earthquake, with death toll estimated to be between 240,000 to 655,000, is believed to be the largest earthquake of the 20th century by death toll. The 1855 earthquake occurred on the Wairarapa Fault which is part of the North Island Fault System. ↑ "GeoNet – Quakes". Apr 19, 1902. The North Island Fault System or North Island Dextral Fault Belt is a set of southwest–northeast trending seismically-active faults in the North Island of New Zealand that carry most of the dextral strike-slip component of the oblique convergence of the Pacific Plate with the Australian Plate. [6]. GNS Science. The largest on record – but certainly not the largest ever – was the magnitude 8.2 Wairarapa earthquake of 1855. The 1861 Sumatra earthquake occurred on February 16 and was the last in a sequences of earthquakes that ruptured adjacent parts of the Sumatran segment of the Sunda megathrust. Although the later Murchison and Napier earthquakes claimed more lives, neither created the geological upheaval wrought by the Wairarapa earthquake of 1855." It was centred at a depth of 7 km (4.3 mi), about 5 km (3 mi) south-east of Christchurch, which had previously been devastated by a magnitude 6.2 MW earthquake in February 2011. On 23 Jan 1855 a magnitude 8.2 earthquake struck here, killing between 5-9 people in the Wairarapa and Wellington. The average slip rates in the fault's central region are about 38mm a year, very fast by global standards. During the great Wairarapa earthquake of 1855, Charles was caught in the Hutt Valley at a friend’s house, which fell down around their ears. Much of modern Wellington's central business district is formed from land raised from the harbour by the event, as shown by the series of "Shoreline 1840" plaques. Earthquake-related deaths were caused by building damage (431 deaths, 88%), ground damage (34 deaths, 7%), or other causes (24 deaths, 5%). Forward elastic dislocation modelling shows that movement on a steeply dipping Wairarapa fault alone cannot account for the recorded deformation data. Site Quicklinks Culture & Society. The June 2011 Christchurch earthquake was a shallow magnitude 6.0 Mw earthquake that occurred on 13 June 2011 at 14:20 NZST. To the east of the Ruahine Ranges is the Wairarapa-Masterton Basin, then the Eastern Uplands that border the eastern coast of the North Island from Cape Palliser to Napier. Retrieved 3 September 2016. [11]. One … The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake . Wairarapa earthquake Happened in 1855 - 7-9 people died 1863. It was centred in the Wairarapa, but once again it was Wellington that experienced the most damage. January 26 – The Point No Point Treaty is signed in the Washington Territory . The quake, estimated at magnitude 8.2, raises parts of the Wellington harbour foreshore by as much as 6 … The 1888 North Canterbury earthquake occurred at 4:10 am on 1 September following a sequence of foreshocks that started the previous evening, and whose epicentre was in the North Canterbury region of the South Island of New Zealand. The 2014 Eketahuna earthquake struck at 3:52 pm on 20 January, centred 15 km east of Eketahuna on the south-east of New Zealand's North Island. The 8.2–8.3 M w Wairarapa earthquake claims between five and nine lives near the Cook Strait area of New Zealand. "Historic earthquakes – The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake". The epicentre was approximately 35 kilometres (22 mi) west of Hanmer. 23 January 1855. Earthquake resistant rebuilding lessened the amount of damage and casualties during the Wairarapa earthquake (8.3) that would hit the same area in 1855. The earthquake originated on the Wairarapa Fault and caused extensive faulting and uplift in epicentral areas. 23 January: The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake causes extensive damage but few deaths. Wairarapa (magnitude 8.2): This is the most powerful recorded earthquake in New Zealand and resulted from movement at least 140 kilometres along the Wairarapa Fault, on the eastern edge of the Rimutaka Range. The 1855 Wairarapa earthquakeoccurred on 23 January at about 9 p.m., affecting much of the Cook Straitarea of New Zealand, including Marlboroughin the South Islandand Wellingtonand Wairarapain the North Island. 1863 HMS Orpheus shipwreck The largest earthquake that has been measured on a seismograph reached 9.5 magnitude, occurring on 22 May 1960. In early 1855 there was an earthquake in the centre of Cook Strait, thought to be of a magnitude of about 8.1-8.2, the largest in human memory. Land was reclaimed to form what is now the central city. [GNS Science]. In 1855 a magnitude 8.2 earthquake – the most powerful ever recorded in New Zealand – rocked the southern part of the North Island. The 2010 Glendale earthquake … Caused by movement along a fault in Palliser Bay, it altered the landscape of the Wellington region and affected its subsequent urban development. Commission, Creative Commons The uplift of the northwestern side of Wellington Harbour rendered many of the jetties in the harbour unusable, although this new area of land provided a new rail and road route to the north. The 8.2–8.3 M w Wairarapa earthquake claims between five and nine lives near the Cook Strait area of New Zealand. Ref #: B-103-016], The large landslide shown in C. E. Gold’s painting is still visible on the Hutt Road today. Cause: Earthquake in Wairarapa; The 9:32pm, 23 January 1855 M 8.2 Wairarapa earthquake generated New Zealand’s largest historical locally-generated tsunami. The ground level at Pauatahanui, Lowry Bay, and to the east of Lake Wairarapa was also raised, but it is possible that this was caused by material being deposited, rather than tectonic uplift. "Initial results show that one of these landslides in particular occurred recently, and may have been caused by the magnitude 8.2 Wairarapa earthquake in 1855." Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. [3] A group of dextral strike-slip structures, known as the Marlborough Fault System, transfer displacement between the mainly transform and convergent type plate boundaries in a complex zone at the northern end of the South Island. The agricultural industries, including forestry, cropping, sheep, beef and dairy farming, are major land users. Cause: Earthquake in Wairarapa; The 9:32pm, 23 January 1855 M 8.2 Wairarapa earthquake generated New Zealand’s largest historical locally-generated tsunami. Hawke’s Bay (7.8 and 7.3): At least 256 people died in the first earthquake (161 in Napier, 93 in Hastings and two in Wairoa), making it New Zealand’s deadliest earthquake. Earthquake-related deaths were caused by building damage (431 deaths, 88%), ground damage (34 deaths, 7%), or other causes (24 deaths, 5%). 1855 The first bridge over the Mississippi River opens in what is now Minneapolis, a … The 1855 Bursa earthquake occurred on 28 February, with an estimated magnitude of 7.02±0.64 M w A devastating precursor quake that took place in Kemalpaşa, a town of Bursa, Turkey caused severe destruction all over Bursa and other neighboring cities. Due to its size, it had a considerable impact on the geography of the region. The Hope Fault is an active dextral strike-slip fault in the northeastern part of South Island, New Zealand. Between 7 and 9 people were killed in the earthquake, and 5 others sustained injuries that required hospitalisation. The earthquake triggered extensive landsliding on both faces of the Rimutaka Ranges, along the Kaikoura coast and in Wellington, where access to Petone was cut off when a large landslide containing ~300,000 m3 of material cascaded down to block the coastal track north. Wairarapa settlers were always alert to the dangers of earthquake. In Wellington, close to the epicenter, shaking lasted for at least 50 seconds. GeoNet content is copyright GNS Science and is The last major earthquake on the Alpine Fault was in c. 1717 AD, the probability of another one occurring within the next 50 years is estimated at about 30 percent. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. The evening of 23 January 1855 was the end of a two-day holiday, the 15th anniversary of Wellington’s founding. Many Wellington buildings were damaged, slips occurred in the Hutt Valley and a tsunami in the Cook Strait and Wellington Harbour flooded buildings near the shoreline. The 1855 earthquake is the most severe earthquake to have occurred in New Zealand since systematic European colonisation began in 1840. The magnitude 8 Wairarapa, New Zealand, earthquake of 1855 was associated with surface rupture along the Wairarapa fault and regional uplift of the southwest of the North Island. Nearly 200 historical accounts have been examined and analysed in order to determine the effects of the magnitude 8+ 1855 Wairarapa, New Zealand, earthquake. January 27 – The Panama Railway becomes the first railroad to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Commission and GNS Science. The 1843 Whanganui earthquake occurred on 8 July at 16:45 local time with an estimated magnitude of 7.5 on the Mw scale. The number of fatalities caused by the earthquake is estimated at between five and nine. Surprisingly there is no comprehensive account other than that of the great British geologist, Sir Charles Lyell, based on information given to … The sole casualty in Wellington was Baron von Alzdorf, who died when a brick chimney in his hotel collapsed. Quetzaltenango, Guatemala 1902 Guatemala earthquake struck on April 18, 1902 at 20:23:50 hrs. The country’s worst shake in historic times, in January 1855, had frightened the first generation of settlers, but things were not so bad for the next forty-nine years. The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake had an estimated magnitude of 8.2 on the Richter scale, making it the largest recorded earthquake in New Zealand. The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake . The earthquake caused extensive damage to buildings, and a 36-hour fire in central Napier which gutted almost 11 blocks. The largest recorded earthquake to have hit New Zealand rocked Wellington and the Wairarapa at 9:11pm, on 23 January 1855. NT 11/12/2012 7.1 Banda Sea earthquake, felt in Darwin New Zealand MBo 16/10/1848 7.8 3 1848 Marlborough earthquake on dextral Awatere Fault. The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake. Seismotectonics is the study of the relationship between the earthquakes, active tectonics and individual faults of a region. This was the first earthquake in New Zealand over magnitude 7 for which written records exist, and the first for which deaths were recorded. The 1855 Wairarapa Earthquake was a significant event in the lives of the people affected. [Gold, Charles Emilius 1809-1871. Daytime earthquakes were more deadly than nighttime earthquakes, and mortality rates … In 1855 an earthquake (The "1855 Wairarapa earthquake") struck the area, raising the coastline and creating flat land for settlement in and around the harbour. 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